These findings highlight the importance of assessing the negative impacts of hooking up, in addition to hooking up behavior, in order to more fully understand the relationship between hooking up and psychological distress for males. The current study is limited in several ways. First, it assessed only negative experiences related to hooking up and did not assess positive experiences that have been reported elsewhere in the literature Fielder et al. However, understanding the negative impacts associated with hooking up is important and was the focus of this particular project.
In future studies it may be beneficial to explore whether positive experiences moderate the relationship between negative impacts and psychological distress. Further, while we collected data on negative hookup experiences over a three month period, we did not capture information related to the particular event in which the negative outcomes occurred. An event-level approach could be used to better understand the contextual factors that lead to increased negative hookup experiences, including the role of partner familiarity and alcohol consumption.
In addition, only students reporting heavy episodic drinking completed the measure of mental health. Future studies should examine the relationship between mental health and hooking up consequences in a more heterogeneous sample of college student drinkers and non-drinkers.
Moreover, students were not provided with a definition of what sexual behaviors constitute unprotected sex and thus may have included personal idiosyncratic concepts of unprotected sex in their responses no birth control, no condom use during vaginal or anal intercourse, no condom use during oral sex, etc. Finally, the NIHI used a dichotomous response format to capture negative experiences. In future studies, researchers may wish to consider using a Likert scale to explore the frequency of negative impacts and employ IRT models to test whether this type of response format improves item discrimination.
More From Thought Catalog
Indeed, it may be that more pronounced gender differences in negative experiences would be observed if students reported on the frequency or intensity of negative impacts rather than on whether or not they occurred. The results from the current study provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the item NIHI as a measure of the negative emotional, social, and health impacts experienced as a result of hooking up in college students.
Overall, the majority of students reported at least one negative impact as a result of hooking up.
With growing research attention on hooking up, measures that reliably assess the consequences of this behavior are increasingly important. Measures that assess a broad range of hookup consequences beyond sexual regret could help inform intervention efforts aimed promoting positive hookup experiences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIAAA or the National Institutes of Health. The first factor, Emotional Responses , included items assessing regret, embarrassment and shame i. The third factor, Social Problems , includes items related to problems with friends and family i.
The final factor, Isolation , included items related to loneliness and disappointment related to no further contact with a hookup partner i. Given the small number of items in each subscale and the dichotomous response format, analysis focuses on total scores on the NIHI and not the subscales.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Sep 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Please direct all correspondence regarding this manuscript to: See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Hooking up is a normative behavior among college students that is associated with a range of positive and negative consequences.
Negative Emotional Responses While most students report more positive than negative affect following a hookup, Lewis et al. Negative Health Outcomes In addition to negative emotional responses, hooking up is related to a number of health risks. Social Consequences One consequence of hooking up that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the impact of hooking up on social relationships. Assessing the Negative Impacts of Hooking Up Despite the growing interest in the negative impacts of hooking up for college students, there has been a dearth of research aimed at developing measures of negative consequences experienced as a result of hooking up.
Current Study The current paper explores the relationships among the negative impacts of hooking up, hooking up behaviors, and psychological distress in college students. Method Participants and Procedure Participants were undergraduate students from three US universities taking part in a larger alcohol intervention study. Measures Negative Impacts of Hooking Up Prior to answering hookup related questions, participants were provided with an operational definition of hooking up used in prior research e.
I have regretted that I hooked up with a particular partner. I have felt ashamed after hooking up. I felt that I had been taken advantage of during a hookup. I have felt lonely after a hookup. A hookup has caused problems with my family or friends. My friends have teased me about a hookup. Open in a separate window.
25 Scary Hookups That Can Haunt Gay Men
Hookup Behaviors Participants reported the number of times they had hooked up and the number of different partners they had hooked up with in the past three months. Analytic Approach IRT calibration was used to examine item characteristics. Results Descriptive Statistics On average, participants reported having 2.
I have wished that I had not gone as far sexually during a hookup. I was pressured to engage in sexual behaviors that I did not want to engage in. I have felt lonely after a hookup 0. I have felt disappointed that a hookup partner has not contacted me after the hookup. Discussion Using a multi-site sample of college students, we assessed a broad range of negative personal impacts associated with hooking up e.
Below is a list of things that sometimes happen to people either during or after hooking up. Next to each item, please select either YES or NO to indicate whether the item describes something that has happened to you in the past 3 months during or after a hookup. I have felt embarrassed by things I have said or done with a hookup partner. I have been judged or labeled negatively by others because of a hookup.
How to Get Over a Bad, Embarrassing Hookup | StyleCaster
I have contracted a sexually transmitted infection from a hookup. I have worried about getting a sexually transmitted infection after a hookup. I felt sexually unsatisfied or unfulfilled by a hookup experience. A hookup has negatively affected a relationship with a hookup partner. Footnotes 1 In addition to examining whether the data were sufficiently unidimensional for IRT analysis, EFA in a CFA framework was used to explore two, three, and four factor solutions.
A double standard for "hooking up": How far have we come toward gender equality?
Is there an association between casual sex and mental health among emerging adults? Journal of Sex Research.
Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York University Press; Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. The Guilford Press; The morning after the night before: Affective reactions to one-night stands among mated and unmated women and men. A review on cognitive impairments in depressive and anxiety disorders with a focus on young adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. The theory and practice of Item Response Theory.
Hooking up and sexual risk taking among college students: A health belief model perspective.
Fitting polytomous item response theory models to multiple-choice tests. Hooking up and romantic relationships on today's college campuses. The Gendered Society Reader. Oxford University Press; Eshbaugh EM, Gute G. Hookups and sexual regret among college women.
Related bad hookup experience
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved